(1) Studio system of Shaw and Cathay (1930s to the 1960s) which made over 250 films in the Malay language.
(2) Independent productions of the 1970s, which made less than 10 films in Mandarin and English during that decade, and then soon collapsed, so no films were made at all in the 1980s.
(3) Revival of the 1990s with independent film production.
THE GOLDEN DAYS
Just as the studio system provided the institutional background for
golden days of
1. These studio houses owned production lots (Shaw had Malay Film Productions - MFP at Jalan Ampas and Cathay Keris had its production lot at Jalan Keris on the east coast).
2. They had their own stable of actors who worked only with them (eg P. Ramlee only worked with Shaw, not
3. The studios owned their own cinemas in which they showed their own films, as well as the
4. These studios functioned as complete creative units, in which their films could not be attributed just to the effort of one individual, such as a director. Quite often there were Chinese producers working with Indian directors and camera crew filming Malay actors. However, there was no strict division of labour. The most talented director was Hussein Haniff who worked for Cathay Keris, but the multi-talented P. Ramlee combined acting, directing, and singing.
5. The individuals who ran the studio houses resembled the powerful, eccentric, and creative characters who ran the studios of
The Rise and Fall
(and Recent Revival) of Cinema in
1930s Shaw Brothers and
1933 According to Cathay: 55 Years of Cinema, Laila Majnun, about a pair of ill-fated lovers in the Middle East, was the first feature film to be made in
1935 Shaw Brothers began making Chinese films in
1942-1945 The Japanese used Shaw Brothers Studios to make propaganda films.
1947 Shaw Brothers set up Malay Film Productions at Jalan Ampas.
1950-67 250 Films are made in
1953 Cathay Keris set up to make Malay films. They focused on stories from the Bangsawan and Malay folklore. They released about 10 films a year.
1957 P. Ramlee wins best actor award at the Asian Film Festival Awards.
1960 Cathay Keris screened its first Chinese film, The Lion City.
1963 Television is introduced to first
1964 The impetus behind film production at Cathay Keris Loke Wan Tho was killed in an aircrash at the Asian Film Festival at
1964 P. Ramlee left
1966 Cathay Keris retrenched staff because of competition from television and loss of the Indonesian market due to the Confrontation. Till this day the studio exists in name only.
1967 Shaw Brothers closed down Malay Film Productions. Competition from television, and
1960s and 1970s The Malay movie industry moved to
1973 P. Ramlee died. The Chinese language kung fu film, Ring of Fury, starring local martial arts teacher, Peter Chong, is made in Singapore.
1974-5 Chong Gay made the films, The Hypocrite, Crimes Does Not Pay and The Two Sides of the Bridge.
1978 The film They Call Her Cleopatra Wong starring Marie Lee and Brian Richmond was made. Sunny Lim tried to promote the film in
1991 No films were made in the 1980s until the true story of serial priestly killer Adrian Lim, Medium Rare. The film flopped at the box office in
1995-6 Army Daze was made and released in 1996. Although a box office success in
1997 Hugo Ng's God or Dog was made, and had moderate success in earning back its cost in international sales. Eric Khoo's 12 Storeys was made in this year and received international critical acclaim. Lim Suat Yen's first film The Road Less Travelled was released and had international critical success. This film and 12 Storeys were described by Kenneth Tan, Chairman of the Singapore Film Society as films that he would "be proud to show anyone anywhere. They prove that local creative credentials are becoming evident".
1998 The year saw sudden upsurge in local films which had box office success in
After this year there has been a steady output of Singapore films, many of which you can read about in the references below.
Other good works include:
Lim Kay Tong, Cathay: 55 Years of Cinema (1991)
Timothy White, “The Cinema of Malaysia” The Arts, issue no. 4, June 1997, pp.18-21.
Timothy White, “When Singapore was Southeast Asia's
Zinjuaher H. M. Ariffin, Sharifah, Sejarah Filem Melayu/The History of Malay Motion Pictures (Kuala Lumpur: Sri Sharifah, 1980).
“From Kachang Puteh to Popcorn: Charting the Course of Singapore Film”, 12X, May 1999, pp.4-5.
Timothy White “Historical Poetics, Malaysian Cinema, and the Japanese Occupation”, Kinema, no.6 Fall 1996, pp.5-27 (in the course notes) or at the website: http://watarts.uwaterloo.ca/FINE/juhde/white962.htm
T.N. Harper, “Popular Cultures in Transition” in T.N. Harper, The End of Empire and the Making of Malaya, (1999) pp.282-285.
History of Shaw Brothers
The Film 12 Storeys:
Singapore Cinema in the 1990s:
They Made a Difference: Loke Wan Tho (1997, Available at READ at Teachers Network on VHS http://readtnlibrary.carl.org/).
From Kachang Puteh to Popcorn (1999 Available at NTU library. It can be download once you have located it on the NTU library's catalogue)
SUMMARY OF HEY
Between 1950 and 1967 over 250 films were produced in
Origins and Achievements
Mr Kwek Chip Jian, a manager from Shaw Brothers' Malay Film Productions, described how the early Malay movies were influenced by Indian films. In his time, there were five Indian directors. Every Indian director would have a Malay assistant, so they learnt from the Indian directors. When the Indian directors went back to
Artists and Studios
The people who made the movies lived together in company housing near the studios. Shaw's Malay Film Productions (hereafter MFP) was at Jalan Ampas, and accommodation quarters was at
P. Ramlee's Talent and Achievements
P. Ramlee was seen as the most gifted of the artists in the black and white Malay language films. He was talented at acting, directing, and singing. The films of P. Ramlee, such as Bujang Lapok, according to Yusnor Ef were based on daily life but had a simple message. P. Ramlee's self-directed film Penarik Beca, was named best film in 1955 by Utusan Filem Dan Sport magazine. P. Ramlee was the ideal model of a Malay actor. He won best actor at the 1957 Asian Film Festival for his role in Anakku Sazali, and 6 years later was voted the most versatile actor at the same Asian Film Festival in
Reasons for the Decline of the Malay Language Film Industry in
In the mid-1960s, there were troubled times for film making in
Both Lim Kay Tong and Philip Chia of the Singapore Film Festival maintained that there was nothing stopping Singapore directors and artists from making good films again. The expertise is there and there are good
SUMMARY OF THEY MADE A DIFFERENCE: LOKE WAN THO (1997)
"There's no reason why movies cannot be made here.."
- Loke Wan Tho.
He died in
a plane crash at the 1964 Taipei Asian Film Festival at the age of 49. Loke's death ended an era that was never to
He had built an empire of cinemas and developed a film industry in our
backyard. He was recognised by
Origins and influences
Loke set up Cathay Keris in 1953 to make Malay language movies and it was entrusted to Loke's partner, Ho Ah Loke, who as a young man had travelled riding a bicycle from town to town in
Comments on working in the Studio system
Datin Hjh Umi Kalthom (Cathay Keris actress 1953-1965): "He (Loke) advised them (film makers and artists) if the movie is weak to try again. Advised as a friend. I would ask him if it was not good and he would say so. I would say are you happy with my acting? He would say that's good. We worked like a family.".
Wahid Satay (Cathay Keris
actor 1957-1977) "Every film that was shown received a good response.
We travelled to
Datin Kalthom: "He compared us
Kalthom in 1957 won a beauty contest in a magazine against strong opposition from Shaw Brothers actresses.
Dato Krishnan: "In the studio system you
compete with another. Not only boss to boss, but director to director,
to producer, actor to actor. So
Lim Keng Hor (Dept GM Admin Cathay 1952-1965) "Shaw had a good head start, but we caught up. Maybe we didn't overtake Shaw, but we did a lot of good catching up".
How it began
Loke's mother saw the potential of the movie industry. She and two others owned a chain of theatres called Associated Theatres. Loke's father had made a fortune from the tin mines in Kluang Bahru. He died when Loke was just two. By the time he was thirteen Loke was already head of the family with his trustees. He went to school in
Loke was very much involved in setting
up the film
Achievements of Loke Wan Tho
in Chinese Films
Ge Lan on Loke Wan Tho: "When he came in, he made movies which became classics. He set the example for others to improve and follow. For that one can never forget Loke Wan Tho".
Lay Chen from the
Many of the Hong Kong Chinese films had
Decline and Loke's death in 1964
However, making money was getting hard by the end of the 1950s. More people were drawn to English movies. By the 1960s, people had to be lured away from their TV sets. Luxury theatres was the way to go, such as the Orchard, which opened in January 1965.
In spite of hard times those close to him believed that Loke would have found a way out for them. Wahid Satay said, "He was a good man. He loved us. If he was still around I don't think the studio would have closed".
Lim Keng Hor (Dept GM Admin Cathay 1952-1965): "He was a sort of rallying point. People rallied around him. This business is not a small business. It is a large business. You need some one of mental strength and whose presence is to attract you, and to attract you to him and the company. So when he died it was more or less a rudderless ship."
Wang Tin Lam (Dian Mao 1956-1969) "Shaw said they were very sorry they lost a competitor. Now there was no one to compete with us. Loke was the only one who could compete".
Loke Wan Tho
difference to the
SUMMARY OF FROM KACHANG PUTEH TO POPCORN: A HISTORY OF
The earliest films made in
Zukini Martin, a rubber planter of
descent, was the first to operate a hand-cranked projector at
In 1923, Run Me Shaw arrived from the
The Beginnings of Feature Film (Movie) Making in
The first feature movie made in
The British exercised film censorship in colonial
As the 1930s closed,
The Japanese Occupation interrupted the development of local films. The Japanese did however pay Run Run Shaw $350 a month to show Japanese propaganda films. Indian films were also shown.
When the British returned the first film that was brought in to be
In 1947, Loke Wan Tho
came back to
Veteran director B.N. Rajhans talented spotted P. Ramlee. He first appeared in the movie Cinta in 1948 as the villain. P. Ramlee made his first film Penarik Beca at the age of 26. He was a gifted and innovative director and composer of songs as well as a good singer. His directing abilities matched those of the Indian directors who were helping set up the industry.
Shaw's Malay Film Productions completely dominated Malay language films until the entry of Cathay Keris in 1953. Their first movie was Buloh Perindu in 1953. It was produced by Ho Ah Loke. According to Albert Odell (Distribution Manager - 1950s Cathay Organisation) "Ho Ah Loke came from British Gayana [in South America] many years back and he started in Malaysia more or less at the same time as the Shaw Brothers started... in showing films in open air places. He was able to make an arrangement with Loke Wan Tho whereby they formed a partnership, which was called Loke Theatres. Then Ho Ah Loke sort of branched off and decided to get involved in film production in making films locally. He formed his company Kris films and had a makeshift studio in Tampines. And as they expanded he was able to induce Datuk Loke to get involved and it became Cathay Keris films."
Ho Ah Loke needed experienced film makers and artists and found no shortage of them at Shaw's Malay Film Productions. By offering them better salaries and contracts he induced them to join Cathay Keris. Despite the emergence of a rival, Shaw believed they still had the edge, and that edge was P.Ramlee. Yusnor Ef said that P. Ramlee told him that when the "audience comes to the cinema want to enjoy after a hardworking day, so don't give them problems, give them humour, song, and dance, so attract them to that story line. The complicated story line let them think at home. The second thing, don't forget to put your song. Your song or music will become the beauty of the film. And always he told me, if you want to make the film make from idea and feeling. If you get idea then you feel it, then you direct."
Any P. Ramlee film was guaranteed to fill the cinema. His emergence as a director was doubly significant. It meant that local directors could be as talented as the Indian directors.
Decline of the Film Industry in
However, in 1963, P. Ramlee left
One of the talented Malay directors was Hussein Haniff.
His classic films Hang Jebat and Dang
Anom, were more sophisticated that many
and did increasingly well at the box office in the early 1960s. The
made the most money were the
The horror films - the
Cathay Keris saw audiences declining
obvious consequence of diminishing box office returns. The reasons were
their control and effectively spelt the end of Malay films in
L. Krishan, director with Cathay Kris said, "the Malay films were mainly for the mothers, fathers, grandfathers. These were the people who would walk miles to come and see a Malay film and go back. When the children were being educated they were not following the mother and father. For the mothers and fathers when television came in they started sitting down in their own homes and forgot about Malay films and films in general".
By 1972, when Cathay ceased making films, the film industry in
SUMMARY OF FROM KACHANG PUTEH TO POPCORN: A HISTORY OF SINGAPORE CINEMA PART 2 (1999)
Decline of the Film Industry in
Timothy White, film historian, "I don't think you can blame the death of the industry on one particular factor, eg TV. The movie industry had changed. Instead of making
Audiences did not flock to the Malay films but to Malay dubbed Filipino movies or Indian movies. According the Herbie Lim (own of the Garrick Theatre) these were seen as better because of better costumes and acting, - "everything was on a higher plane".
When TV arrived in 1963, the public clustered around outdoor TVs in community centres. Herbie Lim says that the introduction of TV meant that cinemas lost 50 percent of their audience.
To combat the small black and white screen,
Tony Yeow, director of Ring of Fury describes how the film was about a hawker who refused to pay extortion money, so the gangsters killed his mother, so he learns Kungfu, comes back and kills the gangsters. The film had no actors. All the people in the film, like the hero, Peter Chong, were Karate artists, Shoalin or Tai Chee practitioners. The fight scenes were not pre-choreographed, but the director would just let them fight for as long as they liked. One fight scene in the movie went on for 60 minutes.
However, the looser censorship standards in Europe and
Tony Yeow: "The main reason was the element of gangsterism. The government was very uncomfortable that there were gangsters and they were almost conducting their business in the open. That had prompted us to make the film. It was actually an anti-gangster film."
As well as the element of gangsterism, the film was perceived to be condoning vigilantism, taking the law into one's own hands. Because of this, an extra scene was shot showing a policeman warning the hero of taking independent action. The insertion of the scene was not felt sufficient to stop the ban. Singaporeans had to wait twenty years before they saw Ring of Fury, on television.
Also making Chinese language films in the 1970s was the company Chongay. It made three
films, Two Sides of the Bridge (1974), Crime Does Not Pay,
Hypocrite. Chongay made an effort to
film industry in
Lim Meng Choo (Co-director of Two Sides of the Bridge): "Chongay's film production unit was a big thing
days. They employed 10 fulltime actors. It started off with the
In 1978 the film, They call Her Cleopatra Wong exploded across movie screens of
Brian Richmond, the male actor in They Call Her Cleopatra Wong
that "Sunny Lim took a gamble to produce a local English language film.
There was a market for Malay films, for Chinese films. The market for
films at that time was unknown. He had big plans in the States and
They Call Her Cleopatra Wong was Sunny Lim's third
Sunny Lim: "We discovered one thing from all that - people love to see action...even today. The Bionic Boy had the strength of superman. The kids went crazy. From the word go it had been meant to be international, and it has been very successful worldwide."
Sunny Lim made only these three films in
The 1980s and Early 1990s
By 1980, film making was in limbo. However TV productions under the direction of experienced directors and producers from
Hong Kong producers started to use
Film exhibition started to change.
The first Singapore Film Festival of 20 February to 1 March 1987
turning point. It brought in international films which expanded the
the audiences. Also, its short film awards encouraged local
enter film making and improve their work for competition. Kenneth Tan
Singapore Film Society says that the
SUMMARY OF FROM KACHANG PUTEH TO POPCORN: A
Revival of Film-Making in the early 1990s with two big local films and the R(A) category
seemed to have a lot going for it – a
local production with an international cast. It was based on a true
spiritual medium and killer, Adrian Lim. As
obviously a brave attempt because nothing else was being made at the
think the only problem is for the sort of film that it turned out,
people pinned their hopes on it. There was a sort of involvement with
To allow the film to travel, the lead was given to American Dore Kraus. Given the story’s Asian context, it was an unusual piece of casting.
Errol Pang, Executive Producer, Medium Rare:
“If you are cooking in the kitchen, the first dish may be not enough well done, but now I know the ingredients to put in, what sauce to put in, whether it's going to be lightly burned or a little bit cooked, not just medium rare. Hopefully my second movie will be well done.”
With a story that sounded too bizarre and out of place, Medium Rare didn’t work as a film, but it at least showed a willingness by local producers not to give up on the film industry.
“I was a bit too early. I thought permission to go ahead with R(A) films was a bit too late for me. If that had been 8 months later and I had put in an R(A) element to it, I may have hit a million dollars.”
The Restricted or (RA) rating reflected a liberation of censorship standards and would be a turning point in local cinema.
“July 1991, the R rating, as it was called then, was introduced (18 and above). Maybe it was such a radical change of policy and practice. The film distributors and exhibitors brought in a lot of different kinds of films under that category, some of which were very good, many of which were very bad. I think public reaction was typified by the feeling that suddenly the classification was of not very good quality films, like Holy Virgin versus the Evil Dead, Erotic Nights, and Erotic Ghost Story. The shift from R (18 and above) to RA (21 and above) did 2 things. One, it had the age requirements a bit more stringent. Two, it introduced the element of contextual judgement into the rating process. In other words, it said, I am not just going to grade films more loosely, or in a relaxed manner because these are for older people. I am going to do that, and I am also going to take into account the artistic quality of the film.”
Ong Soh Chin, former Straits Times film critic:
“To be perfectly honest, I thought Bugis Street was a waste of time and money. I thought it looked very good. The production values were excellent, but I thought the subject matter was not treated very well. I thought Singaporeans and transvestites were portrayed in a very negative inaccurate light. I was really embarrassed watching it actually.”
Ernest Seah, actor in Bugis Street:
subject was really difficult, but it was done very tastefully and it
offended by Bugis Street’s superficial and risqué
treatment, the West seemed to embrace it. It would go on to earn praise
various American film critics and became a cult hit in the
Rise of Art Films in
With feature film making at an embryonic stage, the Singapore Short Film competition, established in 1991, provided an outlet for budding directors.
inception of the film festival, we have always tried to encourage Asian
with the fourth festival, we had more or less established how we might
encourage the industry. That’s when Phillip Cheah
came up with the idea of having a short film award for
desolate picture of the
“With this film, the subject matter was non-commercial and a bit, maybe, dark, so we pushed it, and I was very pleased because at the end of the day when we released it, the BFC (Board of Film Censors) didn’t delete any scenes. It was in its intact form. And we received the R(A) rating for that one.”
“I think it was also good because he didn’t take on an easy subject. The restrictions were because, you know, the sort of Mee Pok seller and prostitute story. These were not glamorous topics. Also Eric was looking at people disenfranchised, not considered acceptable in society.”
didn’t think it was a perfect film. I still don’t think it is a
perfect film. It is definitely flawed. But it was interesting because
home as very real. It showed life in a HDB flat. It showed a very bleak
popular stage play of the same name, Army
Daze (1996) marked
Erlina Suharjono, Vice-President, Head Entertainment Division, Cathay Asia Films Pte Ltd:
started with Michael Chiang, the
filmmaker, Lim Suat Yuen, wrote The Road
Less Travelled (1997) in
Lim Suat Yuen:
“The Road Less Travelled was about four young people trying to strike a balance between reality and achieving their dreams.”
Like Mee Pok Man, The Road Less Travelled was an
made on a micro budget but it represented a huge endeavour on part of
its makers. Like
Khoo, Suat Yuen had also received cash and film stock at the
Lim Suat Yuen:
“During that time I believed that no investors would believe that films would make money. That showed we had to come up with our own money, some of it is from family. I was trying to gather the film project from these tight budgets so we had to shoot it in 21 days.”
“The Road Less Travelled is about the singing movement, local writing. A certain flavour that will allow the film to travel, but uniquely and distinctively Singaporean. I found it entertaining, refreshing, real. I said to myself, if I had a group of visitors who knew nothing about the country or I were at the other side of the globe, and suddenly saw this film appearing on the screen, I would have absolutely, no reservations, no hesitations, absolutely about standing up and shouting to people this is a Singapore film.”
Eric Khoo continued to explore the engaging theme of urban alienation in his next film, 12 Storeys (1997), which took an unflinching look at life in the HDB heartland. Unadorned and hyper-realistic, on critic dubbed it a lyric poem to loneliness.
did Mee Pok Man,
which is considered a blockbuster in
Lim Kay Tong:
“The majority of actors he used were people who had no acting experience or very minimal acting. There is a trend amongst the majority of filmmakers here to use fresh faces. I think they feel that there is more authenticity if they choose someone who is like the personality in the film. They feel they will get a more spontaneous performance. So you know, some of the more trained of us, the more professional of us, are out in the cold a little bit. It is the idea of cinema verite, of getting as close to reality as possible. I think a lot of directors feel that if they use ‘real people’ it is going to be more credible.”
If Mee Pok Man
had earned Eric Khoo a visibility, 12
“It is not
easy to get into
SUMMARY OF FROM KACHANG PUTEH
POPCORN: A HISTORY OF
1998 saw the
release of Money No Enough starring
TV comedian Jack Neo. Made on a small budget, it was a smash hit at the
office, grossing over 6 million dollars at the box office,
it became the second highest grossing movie of all time in
“We knew this film was going to do something. Our estimate was based on $1.5 million because the best film in Singapore so far was Army Daze at $1.6 or 1.7 million. If the film can do 1.5 we would be very happy. In the end it came in $6 million so it was something very unexpected. We did not know it would do so well.”
slice of life, man in the street. It was an example of film product
a reputation based on word of mouth. And I
was an important step in the progression of
“Basically what I want is not try to promote dialect or anything. What I want is to show the realistic part of our society. This is how Singaporeans behave and this is the language they use.”
title, Money No Enough, reflected Neo’s
use of the
“What I think is that each language has its own way of humour. Mandarin has its own. English has its own; and of course Hokkien has its own. We are stay here and most of our generation are still using dialect. Because of this, a lot of humour is in there.”
The overnight success of Money No Enough spawned other comedies, such as Lucky Number (1998) and Where Got Problem? looking at similar themes of money problems and the everyday man.
Fever (1998) was
another celebration of the underdog. It
paid homage to the 70s disco classic, Saturday
Night Fever. Having begun his career a decade ago in
“I certainly made the movie with a universal story in mind and I put in a lot of unusual elements, for instance the disco world, the use of disco classics, that is a way of transcending barriers. So, yes, made with the local market in mind, but with unusual elements that allowed it to travel abroad.”
Goei mortgaged his house to fund the film’s 1.5 million dollar budget. It paid off handsomely when Miramax Film Distributors of Oscar winning films, like Shakespeare in Love, picked it up for world wide release in a multi-million dollar deal.
Lim Kay Tong:
“If you look at stage directors, Ong Keng Seng’s Army Daze and Glen Goei’s Forever Fever, you will find, there is this exaggerated element to the comedy. You may not find it from someone from the film and television industry if they had made that. They created this slightly unreal sense that does transform you, cause then you think you are in a semi-fantasy world so this is what they contribute that gives you variety.”
To achieve the film’s slick and glossy look, Goei employed an established Australian art director and cinematographer with credits from Crocodile Dundee II and Priscilla: Queen of the Desert. It was a move that he saw as a necessary one.
“We had to recognise that we hadn’t made that many films here, so among our DPs and camera men there were very few who have the knowledge and that experience.”
The importance of technical talent is an issue that divides the local film industry.
The off beat Tiger’s Whip (1998), directed by Victor Khoo, mixed Zen philosophy and stand-up comedy.
Tony Yeow, Producer, Tiger’s Whip:
Whip was planned for the
international market. We imbued it with universal appeal, so therefore
we had an
actor for the lead. We didn’t have a local actor. People in the
market can relate to an American actor... We actually were prepared for
it not to
succeed in the
The Teenage Textbook Movie (1998) directed by MTV producer Philip Lim took a step in the youth market and enjoyed only moderate box office, but was picked up by American cable broadcaster Cinemax.
Based on a
popular TV character, Liang Po Po
(1999) marked Raintree
Pictures' maiden release. Whereas previously Singaporeans had only
play minor supporting roles in Hong Kong films, now this film featured
leading local cast with
Daniel Yun, CEO, Raintree Pictures:
“The film industry is wrapt in a lot of myth and mystery, so businessmen are very wary of films, so it took us a lot to take that one step further and set up a movie company. It is considered very high risk by TCS. We learned much from the production industry for a while. We thought that we should take the next step as a movie company - not a production house - a company that looks at movies as a business. It’s a tough business because if you apply the general rules of business to this business sometimes it doesn’t apply because I think this is a business whereby you can lose your pants. This is a business where, on a project basis, where you have a low budget movie and it can give you a home run of 100 million dollars if you do it right.”
investment entrepreneurs are entirely unfamiliar to
“We want to
be in the film industry. We are looking for entry points into the film
as a business.
Brothers had financed Hollywood releases, Yap’s investment of $5million
into the film’s total budget signified a major step for a first time
With films as
colourful as the culture they embody,
1. Account for the rise of the Malay language film
2. Describe the operation of the production of the Malay language
3.Assess the reasons why the Malay language film making industry collapsed during the 1960s.
4. Give an account of film-making in
Most of the readings from above and the material on images of the feminine in the Malay films would be of assistance in this tutorial. Much of this material you will find in the course notes.